Publishing Ethics

  • 1.Authorship and Responsibility  
      (1) What Contributions Can Be Recognized as Authorship?
      The signed author of a scientific research paper should truthfully reflect his/her work and contributions. According to the examples of author contribution expressions in international mainstream authoritative journals, author contributions can be divided into the following:
      ① The proposal and design of research propositions, including the proposal of a specific point of view or method;
      ② The conduct of research processes, such as conducting experiments or surveys;
      ③ Data acquisition, provision and analysis;
      ④ Paper drafting or final revision.
      Documentation, Information & Knowledge (DIK) requires that all signed authors meet at least one of the above conditions and agree to take responsibility for all aspects of the research work, disclose potential conflicts of interest in connection with publication, and ensure that issues related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the paper are properly investigated and resolved.
      In order to better reflect the author's contributions to the paper, DIK uses the mechanism of author contribution statement. If there are more than one author in a paper, the specific contributions of each author should be indicated at the end of the paper according to the four aspects above.
      (2) Authors’ Responsibility
      ① Ensure the authenticity of research data and the reproducibility of experiments;
      ② Do not intentionally exaggerate research achievements and academic value;
      ③ Do not disseminate unscientifically verified phenomena and opinions to the public;
      ④ After the publication of scientific research outcome, the original data such as experimental records and data involved should be submitted to the researchers’ affiliations for management and retention for future reference;
      ⑤ Do not deliberately exaggerate the technical value as well as economic and social benefits, nor conceal technological risks while promoting and transforming scientific and technological achievements which should be able to withstand peer review, user use and market recognition;
      ⑥ Do not plagiarize other people's scientific research outcome or fabricate or falsify research data and conclusions;
      ⑦ Do not purchase, ghostwrite or submit papers through a third party, or fabricate peer review experts and review comments;
      ⑧ The signature and ranking of authors should be determined based on their contributions to scientific research achievement, and no one could be “named” in papers without substantial academic contributions;
      ⑨ Mentors and scientific research project investigators shall not encroach upon the legitimate rights and interests of students and team members in terms of achievement signatures and intellectual property ownership;
      ⑩ Do not label without authorization or falsely label the funding information such as science and technology plans (special projects, funds, etc.);
      When citing the works of others, the principles of reasonable and normative citation should be followed.

    2.Reviewers’ Responsibility
      (1)To fulfill the duties and review manuscripts independently, objectively and impartially in accordance with relevant regulations, procedures and methods;
      (2)Do not accept or participate in review and consultation activities of unfamiliar areas;
      (3)Do not entrust others to review manuscripts, and actively avoid manuscripts that have related interests;
      (4)Do not disclose or plagiarize the content of reviewed manuscripts, and do not use the manuscripts for personal gain.

    3.Editors’ Responsibility
      (1)Be responsible for the entire process of receiving, reviewing, accepting, editing and publishing, and deal with all submissions in a timely and fair manner to guarantee that the edited manuscripts are of high quality and published on time.
      (2)Consistent with the purpose and requirements of DIK, select manuscripts in a fair, just and timely manner, and refuse the submissions beyond the scope of DIK or the innovation, scientificity, and clarity of which do not meet the quality requirements of DIK.
      (3)Ensure a double-blinded peer review process and protect the identities of authors, peer reviewers, and other relevant members of the editorial department.
      (4)Be obliged to investigate and communicate with regard to academic misconduct. Effective measures must be taken for timely responding to the appeals of academic ethics in submissions or published articles. Corrections, clarifications, retractions, or apologies should be made publicly in a timely manner, if required.

    4.Treatment of Academic Misconduct
      Accepted papers must comply with the requirements of China’s relevant laws and policies, and resolutely resist the following questionable research practices:
      (1)Redundant submission. The same paper or papers of minor differences (such as titles, keywords, abstracts, author rankings, or authors’ institutions are different, or there are minor differences in contents) are submitted to multiple journals, or resubmitted to other journals during the agreed or legal ban.
      (2)Redundant publication. A large number of repetitions of one's own published work without proper explanation.
      (3)Plagiarism. Directly publish others’ existing ideas, opinions, data, images, research methods, written expressions and so on in one’s own name without citation or explanation, and excessively cite others’ publications.
      (4)Fraud. Fabricate or falsify data and facts or intentionally alter them untruthfully.
      (5)Split publication. Intentionally split an inherently integrated article based on the same set of data into several parts for multiple publication. 
      (6)Purchase, ghostwrite or submit papers through a third party.
      (7)Fabricate peer reviewers and review comments.
      (8)Illegal author statement. Be “Named” in papers without substantial academic contributions; encroach upon the legitimate rights and interests of students and team members in terms of achievement signatures and intellectual property ownership.
      (9)Unauthorized or false labeling the fund information such as science and technology plans (special projects, funds, etc.)
    If errors and mistakes do exist in the published research outputs, the responsible party shall disclose and acknowledge them in an appropriate manner. If a published paper is found to be problematical such as falsification, plagiarism, serious errors, etc., the journal shall, according to the seriousness of the problem, make corrections in a timely manner by issuing a retraction statement, correction notice or public apology letter, etc., and notify the database for correction.

    5.Mechanism of Appeals
      Authors are encouraged to make reasonable appeals based on sufficient evidence. Definitive judgment will be made by the editorial office for appeals. Repeated or unfounded appeals are unacceptable.

    6.Corrections and Retractions
      If errors are found in previously published papers, especially errors that could affect the interpretation of some data or contents (except the main points and conclusions), regardless of the causes (either authors or editors), DIK will publish the statement for correction in a timely manner and update the paper with correct version on the journal website and database platform.
      If there is any legal infringement, libel or other legal restrictions in published papers, or serious questionable research practices has been confirmed, DIK will promptly publish retractions and remove the paper from the journal website and database platform.
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